Monthly Archives:February 2017

  • NFL Rules for Out of Bounds

    A play that ends up out of bounds in the NFL can bring up tricky ramifications for the officiating crew. While the rules concerning out of bounds plays are similar to those in college and high school football, subtle differences exist as well. In addition, NFL rules on being forced out of bounds periodically go through revisions.
    Many plays in the NFL are made along the sidelines. For a reception to be made legally, a receiver must catch the ball and come down with both feet clearly in bounds. If the receiver jumps up for a pass and catches it but comes down with one foot inbounds and then the other foot comes down out of bounds, the pass is ruled incomplete. In college and high school football, a receiver only has to get one foot inbounds. If the NFL receiver gets even a toe on the sideline, the pass is still ruled incomplete. Close catches along the sidelines are often challenged by coaches and reviewed by the replay official and the referee in charge of the game.
    When a play ends with a ball carrier going out of bounds, the clock stops until the referee sets the ball back at the line of scrimmage and deems that play is ready to begin again. However, if a play ends up out of bounds in the last two minutes of the first half or the last five minutes of the second half, the clock stops and does not restart until the ball is snapped on the next play.
    A player may not run out of bounds and then run back inbounds to make a play. For example, a receiver may not run down the sidelines, step out of bounds and make a catch. If a player makes a catch under those circumstances, a penalty flag is thrown for illegal touching. However, if the player is shoved out of bounds by a defensive player and then gets back inbounds as quickly as possible, the illegal touching penalty flag is not thrown, and the catch can be ruled as legal by the officials.

  • What Are the Differences in Football & Basketball?

    According to a 2011 Harris Interactive Poll, football is the most popular sport in the United States, with basketball checking in at third. However, the similarities between the two sports end there, as the two have little in common besides being two of the most popular team sports.
    Both basketball and football are played with leather or composite leather balls, but the similarities end there. Basketballs are round and give a good true bounce every time. They have even become smart devises. The 94Fifty has sensors in the ball’s exterior which can transmit data in 100 milliseconds to an Android device. Footballs have an oblong shape and take some weird bounces when they hit the ground. The football’s shape is designed to fly better in the air and be easier to catch. In addition, basketballs are larger and heavier than footballs.
    Basketball courts are much shorter and narrower than football fields. According to the National Basketball Association, regulation basketball courts measure 94 feet by 50 feet. I Sport notes that professional football fields are 120 yards by 53.3 yards, or 360 feet by 160 feet. Indoor basketball courts usually are made of wood, while football fields use natural grass or a synthetic.
    Both basketball and football are considered team sports since there are several people playing at once. Basketball teams are permitted to play with five players on the court at one time, while football teams play with 11 at a time. Basketball teams usually have between 12 and 15 players on the roster, while football rosters can range from 50 in professional play to 85 in college games.
    Football and basketball have decidedly different styles of play based on the rules. Football is a full-contact sport, with tackles and physical confrontations and collisions on every play. Basketball is considered a non-contact sport and by rule physical contact in basketball is a violation that can result in a foul. Basketball games are more high scoring than football even though basketball teams are awarded only 2 or 3 points for a made field goal and 1 point for a made free throw. Football grants 6 points for a touchdown, 3 points for a field goal and 2 points for a safety, but scoring is much less frequent than in basketball.
    Football games are played for significantly longer times than basketball games. Football games at the professional and college level have 60 minutes of game play, while high school football plays 48-minute games. Basketball plays 48-minute games at the pro level, 40-minute games in college and 32-minute games in high school. It is important to note that both football and basketball games have several stoppages due to timeouts, fouls or penalties and halftime, which means both last much longer than the game play time.

  • How to Remove Swelling From the Feet Naturally

    Your feet may be swollen from a broken bone, medical condition, side effect of medication or medical treatment, pregnancy or simply from standing for a long period of time or wearing ill-fitting shoes. Being older or overweight puts you at higher risk of having swollen feet. You can do much to reduce the swelling in your feet, including simply resting your feet and giving them a quick massage. The most effective way to reduce swelling is to cool your feet down with a cold water soak and follow up by laying down with your feet elevated above your head.
    Fill a large deep pan with cold water to within a few inches of the top. Sit with your feet in the cold water for 5 to 10 minutes. If you do not have a pan large enough and deep enough to cover both your feet with cold water, fill the bathtub with cold water to a level that will cover your feet or run your feet under cold running water from the tap for a few minutes. Dry your feet well.
    Stack several pillows at one end of your bed or couch. Lie down on your back on the bed or couch and put your feet up on the pillows.
    Edge your butt and the back of your thighs in as close to the pillows as you can get. Your legs should be straight and your feet should be at a level higher than your heart; the higher, the better. Instead of using pillows to prop your feet up, you can use a slightly different method. Lie on your back on the floor at the foot of your bed with your legs up against the bottom of the bed. You will be more comfortable if you are on a rug or mat. You can also lie on your bed with your feet in the direction of the headboard or wall. Scoot up close to the wall and rest your your heels on the headboard or the wall.
    Stay in this position for at least 10 to 15 minutes. If your feet are very swollen, try to stay in this position for at least 30 minutes. The goal is to help fluids drain from your feet and reverse the flow of blood. Repeat several times a day, if necessary, until swelling subsides.

  • Multiple Sclerosis With Carpal Tunnel Symptoms

    Multiple sclerosis and carpal tunnel syndrome are two very different diseases, each with a distinct pathophysiology. However, when multiple sclerosis affects the part of the nervous system responsible for arm and hand function, its symptoms can appear remarkably similar to carpal tunnel syndrome.
    Multiple sclerosis is a disease that occurs when the immune system attacks the myelin, or covering of the nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. As the myelin becomes compromised, the nerve signals grow abnormal and the clinical symptoms can manifest as sensory and motor dysfunctions. In the early stages of multiple sclerosis these dysfunctions may be similar symptomatically to other conditions. When the dysfunctions occur in the hand and arms they may appear to be symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a focal compression of the median nerve inside the wrist. Nerve compression produces abnormalities in the nerve signals which manifest as sensory and motor dysfunctions.
    Abnormal sensory feelings, known as parasthesias, are common occurrences with multiple sclerosis. They can be localized to the legs and arms and when the parasthesias are in the forearm they may appear as carpal tunnel syndrome. Sometimes the arms can feel like they are going to sleep and touch sensation also may be compromised. These symptoms are similar to the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Like carpal tunnel syndrome, multiple sclerosis parasthesias can come and go. Generally numbness occurs in the arms or legs on one side of the body or the bottom half only.
    People with multiple sclerosis may experience weakness or loss of strength and dexterity in the arms and hand. These symptoms are similar to those of carpal tunnel syndrome and can even be accompanied with stiffness, another symptom common to both diseases. As with the numbness, weakness typically occurs on one side of the body or the bottom half only.
    Uncomfortable feelings of pain, burning or itching can manifest in the arms as well as the legs, face and trunk. When localized to the arm, these feelings can mimic symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Multiple sclerosis pain can be extremely varied and often is difficult to describe. Yet many of the pain feelings can appear similar to those of carpal tunnel syndrome in that they can be chronic or acute and constant or intermittent. The pain also can range from dull, aching pain to shooting, electric shock-like sensations, just as in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  • The Culture of Chinese Teens

    As China moves toward becoming the world¡¯s biggest economy, its youth have captured the imaginations of people around the world. Chinese teenagers are often a subject of media attention for their fashion sense, their growing consumer culture, perceived rebellion against a restrictive government and the new sense of personal identity that is beginning to define the younger generations. Chinese teenagers live in a rapidly developing country, but it is also a large country, and their experiences are as diverse as the experiences of any two children in the United States.
    In 1978, China shifted its focus from socialism to modernization, and the Chinese people started focusing on careers over comradeship, according to professor Gheeta Kochar of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing. Teenagers started ¡°looking toward money¡± as consumer culture and materialism grew. From the 1990s on, Chinese teenagers focused on learning English and studying in the United States, as fashion surged and young adults became much less conservative. Chinese teenagers drink, smoke and are more fashion forward than the Chinese teenagers of previous generations. More Chinese adolescents and young adults are moving from rural areas into the city with hopes of better careers.
    Many Chinese teens pursue Western culture, and they show it through their consumption of Western TV shows, movies, foods and clothing. PBS reported in 2012 that KFC was the most popular restaurant chain in the country, although in China, KFC sells Chinese foods such as rice pudding and changes recipes to reflect a Chinese influence. Skateboarding has become popular, with Chinese youth learning moves from professional Western skateboarders. Though government regulations have restricted certain TV shows, including crime shows and ¡°immoral¡± dramas, many Chinese television programs replicate the famous American versions. ¡°China¡¯s Got Talent¡± and ¡°If You Are the One,¡± a Chinese version of ¡°The Bachelor,¡± are popular.
    Chinese ¡°yuppies¡± or ¡°Chuppies,¡± as they¡¯re called, make up a portion of Chinese adolescent culture. These teens are from affluent families and were raised in an environment of economic stability. They are brand-conscious, trendy and have plenty of money to spend. Like their affluent U.S. counterparts, chuppies are always plugged in to the rest of the world through smartphones and computers. This wealthy portion of Chinese teens is a worldly bunch, often well-traveled and experienced.
    As Kevin Lee of “Forbes Magazine” points out, when U.S. media talk about Chinese teens as major consumers or wealthy individuals, they are often addressing only a small segment of the population . Though chuppies are major consumers, as with any country, there are large variations in socio-economic status among the youth. Teens will differ in their value systems, interests and hobbies depending on whether they are from cities or rural areas. In fact, Lee writes, the majority of Chinese teens are not as rebellious as the U.S. mainstream media would have us believe, but are ¡°content.¡± Most youths, Lee says, still feel a deep sense of responsibility to their families, even though values are changing from generation to generation. The majority of Chinese teens are interested in developing a sense of their own individuality and personal identity.

  • Fun Basketball Games to Play by Yourself

    If you have some time on your hands, grab your basketball and head out to your driveway to practice some skills with individual games and drills. Don¡¯t use solitude as an excuse not to get out and play. You can compete against yourself and try to beat your own records with these one-person games.
    In this individual shooting game you compete against an imaginary professional player. Because errors hurt your score more than successful shots help it, you must minimize the number of shots you miss to win. Begin by shooting a free throw. You get one point if you make it; but if you miss it, the imaginary pro gets three points. Follow the free throw with jump shots from outside the free throw lane. Each jump shot you make earns you one point; but each one you miss earns two points for the pro. Keep track of your own score and the score of the imaginary pro. If you can reach 21 points before the pro, you win.
    The object of this game is to move as far away from the basket as possible. Begin 6 feet away from the basket. You must make five shots in a row before you can move one step further from the basket. Continue moving one step farther from the basket with each five shots made.
    This game takes its name from the Hall of Fame basketball player George Mikan. Set a timer to 30 seconds. Start the time and then begin shooting layups. Alternate between shooting left-handed layups from the left side of the basket and right-handed layups from the right side of the basket. Take your own rebounds and shoot the layups continuously. Count the number of layups you make before the timer goes off. See if you can beat this number on the second or third attempt.
    You can play this classic shooting game by yourself to practice shooting from difficult spots. Begin shooting from one side of the basket and then move to a new location with each successful shot. You can shoot from different locations in an arc shape around the key or mark different locations around the court through which to progress. If you miss a shot in the progression, you get one more chance to sink it or you must start the game over.

  • How to Keep White Polyester Sport Clothing White

    Polyester is a breathable and stretchy fabric, which makes it great for sports and athletic wear. White polyester can make your sports gear stand out, on a team or even on the road at night, but it can also start to yellow and look dirty after many uses. Keeping white polyester sports clothes clean is easy with a few extra steps when washing them.
    Mix together in a bowl two parts warm water to one part baking soda. Stir and add water or baking soda as needed to make a thin, watery paste.
    Dip a toothbrush into the bowl to collect the paste and then gently brush the paste into any stained areas of white fabric. Dip again and apply it on the inside of the fabric as well, in order to get at stains from both sides. Repeat steps until all stained areas are covered.
    Allow the baking soda paste to set into the fabric for one hour. Collect the garments and begin washing them as directed with your normal detergent. Typically a warm wash is used on polyester fabrics, but mind the tag to ensure you are treating your specific garment correctly.
    Pour a ? cup of distilled white vinegar into the washer when the rinse cycle begins. The vinegar will further help with stain removal, while freshening and whitening clothes. For a large load, add another ? cup of vinegar.
    Dry garments as directed or allow to air dry to ensure there is minimum shrinkage. If any stains persist, repeat the previous steps a few more times.

  • Muscles That Gymnasts Use

    It is easy to believe that gymnasts use every muscle in the body. They leap, spring, bound, flip and handstand. They not only use every muscle, but also use them in every way a muscle can be used.
    The many positions the body moves through during the back handspring are used on every apparatus. During the back handspring takeoff and landing, the quadriceps and gluteal muscles produce the most power. The quadriceps muscles are called vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris. The main buttocks pushing muscle is called the gluteus maximus. The muscles that squeeze the legs together through the upside-down phase are adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis, pectineus and adductor brevis. The main muscles of the lower legs that a gymnast uses constantly to point, flex and jump are gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior.
    Abdominal and pelvic muscles are used in every movement a gymnast does. In the back handspring, they contract to pull the legs and pelvis over the top. This abdominal contraction and hip flexion is also used throughout a gymnastics routine. The abdominal muscles are called the rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique and internal oblique. Other key pelvic muscles are psoas major and psoas minor, iliopsoas and iliacus. The opposite motion, which raises the torso up to standing, uses the muscles of the lumbar vertebrae, pelvis and legs. They are called erector spinae, gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris and semimembranosus. Some of these muscles have already been named. That is because some do multiple jobs.
    The muscles of the arms, chest and back work together to assist and oppose each other. They are all solicited in the back handspring to pass through handstand position and push off the floor. This motion is repeated throughout a gymnastics routine. Main muscles used in the mid and upper back are called trapezius, latissimus dorsi, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor and teres major, rhomboideus major and levator scapulae. The cooperating muscles of the chest and shoulders are called serratus anterior, pectoralis major and minor, and anterior, medial and posterior deltoids. The upper-arm muscles that reach and push through the upside-down and right-side-up back handspring motion are the triceps, biceps and coracobrachialis.
    A gymnast’s forearms and neck muscles play an important role, especially since the body follows the head, and the neck moves the head. A gymnast’s forearms require significant strength for grasping and holding body weight. Muscles of the neck used in gymnastics are sternocleidomastoid, scalenus, splenius capitis and semispinalis capitis. The forearm muscles are supinator, pronator teres, brachioradialis, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator quadratus.

  • Pros & Cons of Artificial Turf in Sports

    Artificial turf is an innovative surface that replicates the look and feel of natural grass. It is created from synthetic fibers and used in a variety of sports, such as field hockey, football, lacrosse and soccer. Artificial turf is easy to care for, but can also pose a greater risk to an athlete’s health than natural grass.
    The Synthetic Turf Council has a vested interest in promoting artificial turf of course. But it insists it is environmentally friendly because it doesn’t need to be watered, thus playing a major role in water conservation. Also, it doesn’t cost a lot of money to maintain artificial turf. According to the Town of Wellesley, Massachusetts, it costs $45,000 less to maintain artificial turf, compared to natural grass.
    More injuries can occur when athletes train or compete on artificial turf. According to Reuters, NFL players suffer more leg injuries when practicing or competing on artificial turf because the footing was less secure than on natural grass. Artificial turf can cause other injuries to occur. The New Jersey Work Environment Council says artificial turf can reach temperatures of up to 150 degrees, which can make athletes more susceptible to burns, dehydration and heat exhaustion.

  • Blisters on the Tongue When Teething in Infants

    If your baby is teething and has blisters on their tongue, it could be caused by one of several conditions. Fever or a skin rash may accompany blisters in a baby’s mouth if they have a virus. Blisters can also be the result of biting the tongue or salivary gland blockage.
    The blisters may be painless or painful. Some blisters may rupture and form ulcers, or shallow wounds in the mouth. This process can be painful. Other blisters, which are usually painless, can persist and have clear fluid inside of them. If a virus caused the blisters, your child may have a fever, sore throat, irritability, itchy skin, fatigue or poor feeding.
    A virus that commonly affects infants and children named the Coxsackie Virus causes Hand, Food and Mouth Disease (HFMD). HFMD is very infectious and causes fever, blisters in the mouth and may be associated with a skin rash. The illness usually begins with the baby developing fever, sore throat and being very tired. They may refuse even their favorite juices and drinks because of sore throat. One to two days after the onset of fever, painful sores develop in the mouth. They start out as red spots on the tongue, gums and cheeks that blister and turn into ulcers. In that same time period, a skin rash with flat or raised red spots and blisters may appear on the palms of and soles of the feet. Some babies will have the rash on their buttocks and genitalia. Smaller painful bumps on the tongue could be inflamed papillae, the taste buds on your baby’s tongue. Sometimes they are inflamed due to feeding your baby something that is too hot — for example, over heated formula — or from biting the tongue. Fluid-filled blisters under the tongue may be present which are painless. These are called mucocele cysts and are formed from sucking the mouth tissue between the teeth or blockage of a salivary gland.
    If your baby has Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, it is caused by a virus, which will run its course without treatment. Avoid giving your baby anything that will irritate the blisters. Instead, give your child ice cream and popsicles. There is no specific treatment for Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, so if your child has fever or pain, you should give acetaminophen or ibuprofen according to the directions on the box. Do not give your baby aspirin. The virus is spread through infected saliva, stool, blister fluid and throat secretions so be sure to wash your hands after contact with your baby and any changing surfaces. Disinfect surfaces and toys with soap and water, then a disinfectant solution, such as 1 tbsp. of chlorine bleach to 4 cups of water. Inflamed papillae and mucocele cysts will heal on their own without treatment. If your baby has pain from inflamed papillae, try to keep them comfortable with things like ice cream or popsicles until they feel better. Use acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain if needed.
    If your teething baby has blisters on their tongue, it could be from a viral illness, which is highly contagious, or a condition that will heal on its own. Be sure to look for any other associated symptoms such as fever or skin rash to determine if you should be worried about spreading an infection to other family members.